Hidden constraints to digital financial inclusion: the oral-literate divide

The vision that digital finance can promote universal financial inclusion overlooks that about a billion of the world’s adults are unable to read or write 3- or 4-digit numbers. In this 2019 refereed article published in the journal Development in Practice, Brett Matthews, My Oral Village’s executive director, unpacks the challenges facing such “oral people” and explores usable tools they can safely employ to handle financial transactions. The article is available as a free download here.